You know the standard trademark symbols: the small, raised TM or SM and the circled letter R. Alas, keyboards don’t make it comfortable to type these characters. Let’s look at what these symbols represent and some opportunities for organizing them.
A trademark is a phrase or logo representing a particular product or service. It can exist with or without official registration. The federal registration symbol, the encircled R (®), is for marks that have obtained an official registration by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Its use is optional, but owners should insert it to preserve their rights. In an enforcement activity, you may ask the court for monetary damages, including lost profits, if you show that the infringer had actual knowledge of your mark’s federal registration.
The TM (™) stands for unregistered or uncertain trademarks on goods or a combination of goods and services. The SM (℠) signifies an unregistered mark just for services. You do not need to use TM or SM symbols, as their use does not offer any state or federal protection, but the use of the TM or SM does put viewers on notice of your claim. Thus, it can control others from adopting a name and logo like yours for similar products or services.
How to Type the Characters
Now, here are some handy ways to type these symbols.
Registered Trademark Symbol
The encircled capital R appears typically increased at the right-hand side of a business name or logo. It is only for federally registered marks, not for pending marks or state registrations. There are a few different ways to type it in Microsoft Office:
- Type (r) and the automatic edit function create the symbol. (To undo the autocorrection, press the CTRL key and the Z key together, which reverses the last move you made when typing.)
- Hold down the left ALT key while typing 0174 on your keyboard’s numeric section (usually on the right side). Release ALT and see the symbol in your browser field.
- As you write your document, the INSERT tab is one of the tabs along the top of your screen. Press it, then find SYMBOLS, which shows a SPECIAL CHARACTERS menu. Click on the one you wish to use. This is a great way to find just about any symbol you’ll need in your drafting.
If you’re on an Apple computer, push the OPTION key and the R key to get the symbol using any word processing software.
Finally, if you’re working on a website, use ® for HTML or ®.
Unregistered Trademark Symbol
The raised TM signifies an unregistered trademark. Like the registered trademark symbol, there are a few methods to type the unregistered trademark symbol in Microsoft Office:
- Type (TM) will automatically correct it to make the ™ symbol.
- Hold down the left ALT key while typing 0153 on the numeric section of your keyboard. Release ALT and see the symbol in your browser field.
- Use the INSERT tab and find the symbol.
Press the OPTIONS key and the two keys to have the character immediately appear when using an Apple computer. For HTML, use ™ or &trade.
Service Mark Symbol
Once registered, a service mark may carry the encircled R, just as all registered trademarks do. If the service has no official registration, you need the raised SM symbol.
Microsoft does not provide an easily raised SM shortcut in Outlook or a Word document, but you can copy and paste the ℠ symbol from this page. (Highlight it with your cursor, press CTRL+C, place your cursor in your document, then press CTRL+V.) If you’re on an Apple computer, use the character palette. Use ℠ to insert the symbol into your draft for HTML.
Place the correct symbol at the upper right-hand corner of a name or logo. You may place it at the lower right but avoid defying business norms by putting it on the left, over, or under the mark.
In articles, announcements, and so forth, use a symbol with the mark’s first or most obvious instance.
Preserving the essence of your work is essential, especially if it is protected by law. Placing the appropriate symbol by your protected work lets everyone know that.
This portion of the site is for informative purposes only. The content is not legal advice.
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