How to Type the Registered Trademark Symbol

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You know the standard trademark symbols: the small, raised TM or SM and the circled letter R. Alas, keyboards don’t make it comfortable to type these characters. Let’s look at what these symbols represent and some opportunities for organizing them.

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A trademark is a phrase or logo representing a particular product or service. It can exist with or without official registration. The federal registration symbol, the encircled R (®), is for marks that have obtained an official registration by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Its use is optional, but owners should insert it to preserve their rights. In an enforcement activity, you may ask the court for monetary damages, including lost profits, if you show that the infringer had actual knowledge of your mark’s federal registration.

The TM (™) stands for unregistered or uncertain trademarks on goods or a combination of goods and services. The SM (℠) signifies an unregistered mark just for services. You do not need to use TM or SM symbols, as their use does not offer any state or federal protection, but the use of the TM or SM does put viewers on notice of your claim. Thus, it can control others from adopting a name and logo like yours for similar products or services.

How to Type the Characters

Now, here are some handy ways to type these symbols.

Registered Trademark Symbol

The encircled capital R appears typically increased at the right-hand side of a business name or logo. It is only for federally registered marks, not for pending marks or state registrations. There are a few different ways to type it in Microsoft Office:

  • Type (r) and the automatic edit function create the symbol. (To undo the autocorrection, press the CTRL key and the Z key together, which reverses the last move you made when typing.)
  • Hold down the left ALT key while typing 0174 on your keyboard’s numeric section (usually on the right side). Release ALT and see the symbol in your browser field.
  • As you write your document, the INSERT tab is one of the tabs along the top of your screen. Press it, then find SYMBOLS, which shows a SPECIAL CHARACTERS menu. Click on the one you wish to use. This is a great way to find just about any symbol you’ll need in your drafting.

If you’re on an Apple computer, push the OPTION key and the R key to get the symbol using any word processing software.

Finally, if you’re working on a website, use &#x00AE for HTML or &reg.

Unregistered Trademark Symbol

The raised TM signifies an unregistered trademark. Like the registered trademark symbol, there are a few methods to type the unregistered trademark symbol in Microsoft Office:

  • Type (TM) will automatically correct it to make the ™ symbol.
  • Hold down the left ALT key while typing 0153 on the numeric section of your keyboard. Release ALT and see the symbol in your browser field.
  • Use the INSERT tab and find the symbol.

Press the OPTIONS key and the two keys to have the character immediately appear when using an Apple computer. For HTML, use &#8482 or &trade.

Service Mark Symbol

Once registered, a service mark may carry the encircled R, just as all registered trademarks do. If the service has no official registration, you need the raised SM symbol.

Microsoft does not provide an easily raised SM shortcut in Outlook or a Word document, but you can copy and paste the ℠ symbol from this page. (Highlight it with your cursor, press CTRL+C, place your cursor in your document, then press CTRL+V.) If you’re on an Apple computer, use the character palette. Use &#8480 to insert the symbol into your draft for HTML.

Style Tips

Place the correct symbol at the upper right-hand corner of a name or logo. You may place it at the lower right but avoid defying business norms by putting it on the left, over, or under the mark.

In articles, announcements, and so forth, use a symbol with the mark’s first or most obvious instance.

Preserving the essence of your work is essential, especially if it is protected by law. Placing the appropriate symbol by your protected work lets everyone know that.

This portion of the site is for informative purposes only. The content is not legal advice. 

According to the Civil Code, there are several ways can acquire ownership over real estate. When selling a property in Russia , the owner needs to know their rights over the property. The following types of ownership rights are acknowledged in Russia :

  • – land plots or real estate properties that have been inherited by the current owners, which can sell without any legal problem;
  • – mortgaged properties that cannot be sold without prior notification to the bank and the person to buy the real estate.

In the latter situation, the buyer will be required to assume the mortgage over the property. However, it is good to know that mortgaged property sales are infrequent in Russia .

The selection criteria in Russia do not usually include a property’s physical condition, as in most cases, buyers prefer doing their renovations and arrangements. However, other sale conditions are seen as more important, namely the legal aspects of the property and the completeness of the paperwork (done by the seller). For example, if you have inherited the estate, you should register the title before selling it. If you have Russian relatives registered on your property, you should write them at another address, thus putting it on the market free of third-party rights.

The owner of a Russian property is not required to complete any specific steps when selling unless they want to. One can advertise the sale of the respective property on specialized websites or with real estate agencies.

When preparing the sale of real estate, the proprietor must ensure that:

  • – they have all the documents which need to be presented during the transaction;
  • – they are the owners of the properties – the property deed must bear their name;
  • – they draft a pre-sale or directly a sale-purchase agreement with the buyer;
  • – they have paid all the taxes related to owning a property, according to the Russian law;
  • – they provide all the documents the buyer will need to register the property in their name.

It is also essential to know that the property seller has the right to verify the person or company when selling real estate in Russia. Our law firm in Russia can ensure the real estate due to diligence procedure on behalf of sellers and buyers.

The sale of commercial properties in Russia is quite common. Many foreign companies setting up operations here are also interested in acquiring office buildings or land plots to carry out their functions. While there are certain restrictions related to purchasing land plots in certain areas, the purchase of private-owned commercial real estate is permitted.

It is important to note that the sale of commercial real estate will imply a thorough verification of the buyer and assistance from a law firm in Russia.

Another aspect to consider is that commercial real estate sales can be part of an acquisition deal for an entire business, a case in which specific clauses apply. Our attorneys in Russia can guide local companies interested in selling real estate as part of an acquisition deal by complying with the legislation in this sense.

Both the seller and the buyer need to prepare a set of documents when completing a real estate transaction. This set of documents must comprise:

  • – the identification papers (ID or valid passports) of both the seller and the buyer;
  • – the sale-purchase agreement, which both the seller and buyer must sign;
  • – the property title which the seller must bring upon the completion of the transaction;
  • – a power of attorney, if one of the parties has enabled a third person to complete the transaction on their behalf;
  • – the mortgage holder’s consent if the property is subject to a mortgage.

Our Russian lawyers can help the seller prepare the documents when such a transaction is completed. We can also offer representation during the transaction if the property owner is not in the country. We only need a power of attorney to represent them.

Once the transaction is completed, we can also ensure the former owner no longer appears in the Land Register’s records to avoid paying additional taxes.

The video below presents the main steps required to sell the real estate property in Russia :

Must register the sale-purchase contract with the State Registrar for the Property Rights and Deals. There are two kinds of registration in Russia:

  • – the expedited registration (which can take up to two weeks); a fee has to be paid per entry, and if the purchased property is a building that has land, a separate price is necessary for registering the ground as well;
  • – the usual registration (which takes up to four weeks). 

The sale transaction usually takes place in a bank. The seller and the buyer execute a preliminary contract, describing all the conditions of the deal that is about to be closed and stating the list of documents that have to be provided by the seller. After the payment, both have to sign the agreement before a notary or realtor. You can ask our attorneys in Russia for more information or advice on issues related to selling a property or other legal matters.

The tax rates depend on the tax residency of the vendor. Typically, persons who exceed 183 days per year in the Russian Federation are seen as tax residents, and the tax rate is 13%. These sellers have to pay taxes on the capital gains. In the case of owning a property for more than three years, the vendor is exempt from all taxes. For non-residents, there are no tax exemptions, and they have to pay 30% on the sale proceeds.

If you are searching for professional legal assistance, feel free to contact our lawyers in Russia. We can help both the seller and the buyer complete any residential or commercial real estate-related transaction. However, you can also rely on us for assistance in other legal matters, such as starting a company in Russia.

Related: Open a llc company in Russia

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