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The media have become increasingly concerned with energy resources in the last decade. Oil is no exception.
The cost of this type of hydrocarbon feedstock is formed depending on the trading exchange and its evaluation.
Oil brands are characterized by chemical composition and origin, which directly affects their costs.
The class or brand of oil is a qualitative characteristic of raw materials produced in one field, which differ in their composition and homogeneity from others.
Oil in different wells has unique properties, so there was a need to classify it. A conditional division into light and heavy oil has been adopted to simplify the export system. T
here are more than 20 marks a year of excavation in the world. For example, Russia’s leading oil export brands are Ural heavy oil and light oil Siberian Light, while five types are produced.
There are over a dozen marks in the United States. Because of this diversity, they cannot be sold on international exchanges. Therefore, the price of each brand is determined by the brand – British Brent oil, American WTI, and Middle Eastern crude.
The cost of each oil brand is determined by the discount or premium about the brand’s rating, depending on the quality of raw materials.
For example, heavy oil with a high content of impurities and sulfur will be traded cheaper than the same Brent or WTI.
Raw material characteristics, As a rule, oil is described as a black fatty liquid, but this definition is not valid in all cases. The color scheme can vary from black to yellow and transparent.
The most important characteristics are also the coefficients of viscosity and melting. Some types of oil can harden at low temperatures, while others remain liquid in all weather conditions.
Due to such heterogeneous characteristics, the conventional division of varieties into light, medium and heavy is accepted.
This raw material is practically not used; therefore, the oil is processed to obtain a marketable product.
The speed and efficiency of processing are directly proportional to the density of the raw material and the content of sulfur and impurities.
Light varieties are more expensive because of gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene. Of the heavy levels, oil and fuel are used for furnaces, used less frequently, so their cost is lower.
Until 1973, the price of “black gold” was no more than $ 3. The price has risen four times after the ban on exports of raw materials from Arab countries.
In the early 1980s, during the crisis in the Middle East, costs ranged between $ 15 and $ 35. low sulfur oil, content is called “sweet,” and with high – “sour .”
It got its name because oil workers tried it in the 19th century. The cost of processing sour oil is much higher than processing sweet. So sweet is always in the price.
A recognizable feature of the exchange in New York is the dollar price of raw materials per barrel and for products from it – in cents per gallon.
There is an international oil exchange in London, where over 50,000 futures for various brands of oil are traded during the day and Brent blends. Physical oil supply is done only on 1% of concluded futures contracts.
OIL BRANDS IN RUSSIA
Six types of oil are exported from Russia.
The Urals are located in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, as well as in the Republic of Tatarstan.
This brand is characterized by high sulfur and heavy hydrocarbon compounds. A discount for Brent North Sea determined the price of the Urals brand oil.
This rating is obtained by obtaining a mixture of West Siberian oil and Volga oil. Its quality suffers.
Tatarstan has tried premium raw materials from the Urals in the last decade. The price of Ural oil was formed on the RTS commodity exchange.
Siberian light was mined in the Khati-Mansi Autonomous Region. The sulfur content is almost three times lower than in the Urals.
Arctic oil is produced in the bed of the Cave Sea. This is the first Russian oil field located in the Arctic Ocean. A distinctive feature of this brand of Russian oil is its high density and high sulfur content.
Oil is extracted from a stationary platform 60 km from the coastal area. The falcon has little dirt. It is being explored on the island of Sakhalin. Exports are made through the territory of Khabarovsk.
ESPO is characterized by low density and low sulfur content, mined in Eastern Siberia. The ESPO pipeline transports it. Vityaz is a Sakhalin type of oil similar to Omani light crude. It is exported via the Trans-Sakhalin oil pipeline. WORLD OIL BRANDS: GLOBAL CLASSIFICATION, The entire world classification of “black gold” is based on two brands – Sweet crude oil and Light Sweet crude oil.
Sweet oil – raw materials with a sulfur content not exceeding 0, 5%, and hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.
Currently, this brand is used in the production of gasoline. Light Sweet Crude Oil contains a little wax.
Viscosity and density may vary. Based on the characteristics of these varieties, the following designations began to be attributed to oil brands:
light (high density);
raw (low wax content);
heavy (low density);
sweet (a little sulfur).
In total, there are three brands of oil in the world that are considered standard.
Brent (raw) – raw materials in the North Sea of medium density, containing up to 0 5% of sulfur impurities. It is used in the production of middle distillations and gasoline.
The price of Brent crude oil is the basis for the costs of more than a third of all other varieties in the world.
WTI is mined in the US state of Texas. It has a density higher than Brent, sulfur content – up to 0, 25%.
Dubai Crude – oil from the UAE. It is also called Fateh. It has a low density. Contains up to 2% sulfur impurities.
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