Status of Russian citizen can be obtained by a foreign citizen as well as by a person without citizenship. In accordance with Russian laws the latter is an individual who is not a citizen of Russia and cannot confirm foreign citizenship at the same time.
Even if you do not have civil passport, it is still necessary to obtain a permit to enter Russia legally. Especially if you plan to stay in the country for a long time, to settle in the Russian Federation. The situation of stateless persons in such situations is legalized by obtaining permanent residence permit (PRP).
Advantages of permanent residence permit
Permanent residence permit is a document that establishes the right of foreigner to permanently reside in Russia. A person without citizenship can also get it: in this case, permanent residence permit will not only indicate the right of permanent residence, but also act as an identity card.
As soon as a person gets PRP, his status as a visitor will be officially fixed, in addition, he will be granted a wide range of rights. Permanent residence permit without citizenship in the Russian Federation allows to work and run own business, freely cross country’s borders and move from one region to another. It also entitles the foreigner to get free medical care in public institutions, and even pension provision.
PRP actually equates a foreigner in rights with Russian citizens, with a few exceptions. This document does not allow to participate in elections and work in certain positions and facilities related to national security. Nevertheless a person can apply for citizenship, however, it is necessary to live on the basis of PRP in Russia for at least 5 years.
What advantages does foreign citizen with permanent residence permit have:
- possibility to move within the country without notifying the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Unlike temporary residence permit, which is valid only in a certain region, PRP allows to freely change place of residence within Russia.
- possibility to freely cross the state border. Despite the popular myth, PRP does not impose almost any restrictions on the number of border crossings. It is possible to do this at least daily, if there is such a need. The only restriction: the law requires that a foreign citizen or a stateless person spend no more than 180 days abroad per year. But there is a number of exceptions to this rule, for example, the need for long-term treatment abroad.
- possibility to work freely in Russian companies or conduct business activities, with retaining the right to receive pension in future.
- possibility to apply for a compulsory health insurance policy and use the services of state clinics and hospitals without any additional cost.
- possibility to apply for citizenship of the Russian Federation after 5 years of continuous residence in the country.
Peculiarities of obtaining PRP without citizenship in the Russian Federation
The law provides for two options of obtaining permanent residence permit: general and simplified procedure. The general procedure assumes that foreigner obtains temporary residence permit (TRP) first of all. After receiving a document, it is necessary to live in Russia for a year, after which it is possible to apply for permanent residence permit.
It should be noted that it is not possible to extend the validity term of TRP. Therefore, after this document is expired, it will be necessary to either leave the country, or get permanent residence permit, or re-pass all the procedures related to the temporary residence permit. As a rule, it is not easy, because most visitors receive TRP under the quota, which is small and difficult to get from the first time.
For some categories of foreigners, the law provides for an exception: possibility to obtain permanent residence permit without obtaining TRP before that. However, most visitors who do not have a civil passport of another country, draw up documents according to the general procedure.
Validity term of permanent residence permit
For a long time, permanent residence permit was valid only within 5 years, after which the document had to be extended or it was necessary to obtain citizenship. However, in 2019, amendments came into force that made this document’s validity term indefinite, including for those who have the status of stateless person.
So, the validity period of PRP is unlimited, but the migration authorities can apply to the court and cancel this document. The reason for this is usually violation of law, departure for permanent residence abroad, too long stay outside of Russia without valid reason. However, the decision of migration authorities can be challenged in pre-trial and judicial proceedings.
In addition, stateless person permanently residing in Russia who has indefinite permanent residence permit is required to submit an annual notification to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. So he confirms that he still lives in the country. Face-to-face attendance is optional, it is enough to submit electronic applications. It is only necessary to submit a notice in person every 5 years. If a stateless person does not send a notification continuously for 2 years, the residence permit is revoked.
Who can not apply for permanent residence permit
Anyone who has lived in the country for at least a year has the right to apply for PRP without citizenship in the Russian Federation. However, there are people who will not be given permanent residence permit:
- those who pose threat to the security of country and citizens;
- foreigners who support terrorist or extremist activities through their actions;
- applicants who have submitted forged documents to state authorities of the Russian Federation, have reported deliberately false information about themselves;
- convicted persons whose criminal record has not been removed (however, we are talking exclusively about persons who have committed a serious crime in any country of the world);
- people who repeatedly within one year were brought to administrative responsibility, encroached on public order and safety;
- foreigners who cannot support themselves in Russia;
- men and women who have entered into a fictitious marriage with citizens of the Russian Federation to obtain a residence permit (provided that the marriage is declared fictitious by court).
All the above reasons can also be a reason for the cancellation of the document.
How to get permanent residence permit
The procedure of obtaining PRP without citizenship in the Russian Federation takes place in several stages. How long this will take depends on whether the migrant can apply for a simplified application procedure. These categories include:
- participants of the federal resettlement program;
- migrants officially recognized as native speakers of Russian;
- highly qualified specialists and their family members who are invited to work in the country;
- Turkmen and Belarusian citizens.
If the migrant does not belong to any of the listed groups, he first needs to apply for temporary residence permit. This can be done according to a simplified or general procedure, and general procedure involves obtaining quota. It is small, and it varies from region to region.
What documents are needed to obtain permanent residence permit
A person without citizenship has to apply to the migration authorities at the place of stay and provide a set of documents. The list can be found on the official website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
This should be done in 8-12 months after obtaining TRP. It should be noted that temporary residence permit is the basis for submitting an application, but it will only be accepted if you apply to the migration authority no later than 4 months before the expiration date of TRP. What documents should be submitted?
- Identity card.
- Temporary residence permit.
- Two standard photos: black and white or color.
- Documents on passing exams in the Russian language, the history of the Russian Federation and the basics of legislation.
- Receipt for the payment of a fee in the amount of 5 thousand rubles (in case of refusal to issue a residence permit, this amount is not refunded).
If the documents are correct, the foreigner will be given a certificate. It confirms that the application has been submitted. The application itself will be considered within 4 months. The deadline may not be so long, but do not expect that migration authorities will make a decision earlier than in 2 weeks.
Thus, permanent residence permit is a document that allows a stateless person to legally stay in the country, live and work, rent housing and even receive free medical treatment. The document gives the migrant almost the same legal status as Russian citizens. The differences in status are small. However, the procedure of obtaining permanent residence permit is associated with a number of difficulties. Among them is the need to obtain temporary residence permit, which is repeatedly complicated by stingy government quotas.
Experienced lawyer in the field of migration law can help you obtain permanent residence permit in Russia in compliance with all legal requirements and avoid pitfalls in this procedure. Such a specialist will take on the task of processing documents, advise on any migration issues. In some cases, he can act on behalf of his client, and if a full-time presence is required, he will accompany a stateless person during visits to state bodies.