How long a foreigner can stay in Russia depends on his visa or visa-free entry rules. Although for some countries these rules are more than favorable, if you want to live continuously in the Russian Federation for a year or longer, you need a special document: residence permit. It confirms your right to stay permanently in the country, as well as to freely move within Russia and cross its border.
However, in order to receive such a document, you need to justify your desire to stay in the country, and one of the possible justifications is to marry a citizen of the Russian Federation. In such cases, a special type of document is drawn up: a residence permit in the Russian Federation by marriage. It has its own characteristics that distinguish it from other permits for continuous residence.
The specifics and advantages of the Russian residence permit
A residence permit in Russia by marriage or on any other basis gives a foreigner practically the same rights as Russian citizens. The only exception is the right to participate in elections and referenda — citizenship is required for this. But, by the way, a continuous residence permit is necessary as a basis for applying for citizenship. And if this document can be canceled after the marriage is declared invalid, then deprivation of citizenship is a much more complicated and rare procedure.
What is a residence permit in Russia by marriage for foreigners? This is a document in which the personal data of the holder, the date of issue and the validity period are indicated. Since November 2019, most foreign citizens have been issued an unlimited document, although more recently, the validity of a permit for continuous residence was limited to 5 years. Now, the only thing that needs to be done is to change the residence permit when changing personal data and reaching the certain age.
As we have already said, you can obtain a residence permit in 2020 in Russia by marriage or on other grounds. For example, permit is issued to highly qualified specialists who come to work in the country by invitation. Moreover, permission is obtained not only by them, but also by members of their families. However, in this case, the residence permit is not unlimited, but is limited by the duration of the work permit. In the case of obtaining a residence permit for marriage with a citizen of the Russian Federation, the document will be valid all the time until the marriage is considered valid.
There are many reasons to apply for a permanent residence permit if you plan to live and work in the Russian Federation. Among them are:
- Ability to work and do business freely in any region.
- The ability to freely change the place of residence within the country without notifying the Ministry of Internal Affairs (as required by a temporary residence permit).
- The ability to freely stay in the country for unlimited time.
- No need to obtain a patent or work permit.
- The right to health insurance and free medical care in government agencies.
- Ability to issue an entry invitation for relatives, partners and friends.
- The possibility of lending in Russian banks.
Finally, in the future you will be able to apply for citizenship. Please note that obtaining a residence permit by marriage with a citizen of the Russian Federation requires that you first apply for a temporary residence permit. In case of citizenship, there are also no exemptions. If you want to become a Russian citizen, you shall first obtain a residence permit on one ground or another.
Simplified and general procedure for obtaining residence permit
Within the simplified it is not necessary to obtain a temporary residence permit, while the general procedure requires that you first get this document, live with it in Russia after that for at least 8 months, and only then receive documents on the right to permanent residence in the country.
In 2020, a residence permit in Russia for marriage is issued in the general manner. A wedding with a local resident does not allow the use of simplified procedure. But it cannot be ruled out that you have other reasons that can make paperwork simpler and faster, for example:
- you were born in the RSFSR, and you had USSR citizenship;
- you or your close relative was invited to work as a highly qualified specialist;
- you are recognized as a native speaker of the Russian language;
- you are a minor who files documents with your parents;
- you have parents / children with local citizenship who live permanently in the country and so on.
How to get a residence permit in Russia by marriage
Before you apply for a residence permit, you will have to apply for a TRP (temporary residence permit). It is issued on a quota or out of quota. Adult applicants receive it according to the quota, which is annually approved by the government. However, much depends on the region where you plan to settle. Quotas are usually few, so getting a positive response from officials the first time is almost impossible.
Fortunately, the law does not limit the number of attempts to obtain a quota before you can apply for a residence permit. You can apply for it as many times as you consider necessary, since there are no limits. However, it is important to keep track of the deadlines, because after the quota expires, government agencies stop accepting documents. In addition, you must use the quota before the end of the calendar year.
To do without these formalities, special reasons are needed. These include the following circumstances:
- You were born in the RSFSR, and you had USSR citizenship.
- You are a minor whose parents receive TRP.
- You are married to a Russian citizen who lives in the country.
- You are a citizen of one of the states that used to be part of the USSR and obtained degree at a state university on a state-accredited program.
- You are HQS or a member of his family.
In other words, marriage with a local resident gives you a slight advantage: you can get around the quota. However, TRP has one feature: it works only in the region where it was issued. The document is not flexible. If your spouse lives in Moscow, then you have the right to live and work only in Moscow.
An approximate list of documents for obtaining a TRP:
- application form;
- two photos 35×45 mm;
- the passport;
- certificate of no criminal record;
- medical certificates;
- marriage certificate;
- a document confirming knowledge of the Russian language, history and the foundations of law;
- passport of spouse – citizen of the Russian Federation;
- receipt of duty payment.
Only 8 months after receiving the TRP, you can apply for a residence permit. At the same time, the package of documents also includes an application, passport, TRP, photographs, receipts, and a medical certificate. In addition, you are required to confirm the legitimacy of income, and in some cases additional documents may be required.
Officials will consider the application for a residence permit in Russia for marriage for foreigners within 4 months, after which they will send an official notice.It is useless to enter into a fictitious marriage in order to stay in the country, because a legal proceedings may be initiated against you. The migration service and law enforcement agencies monitor such cases, and if the fictitious marriage is revealed, it will be invalidated and the residence permit will be canceled.